Comparison of awareness of radiation protection, dose levels, and complications of radiation exposure in imaging procedures between radiology residents/undergraduate students and radiology staff: A cross-sectional study

Document Type : Original research paper

Authors

1 Department of Radiology Technology, Behbahan Faculty of Medical Sciences, Behbahan, Iran

2 Department of Nursing, Abadan University of Medical Sciences, Abadan, Iran.

3 Department of Public Health, Behbabah Faculty of Medical Sciences, Behbahan, Iran

4 Department of Nursing, Abadan University of Medical Sciences, Abadan, Iran

Abstract

introduction: Radiographic tools are one of the most instruments in hospitals. The ionizing radiation process occurs in radiographic instruments. The ionizing radiation causes side effects in the users. Lack of knowledge of staff and students radiology regarding radiation risks, protection, and dose levels in medical imaging procedures causes complications in them. Therefore, this study was conducted to compare the awareness of radiology staff and students regarding radiation risks, protection, and dose levels in medical imaging procedures.
Methods:  In this analytical cross-sectional study with the participation of 180 participants include 62 students and 118 radiology staff were was done by convenience sampling from the hospitals of Tehran university of medical siences, in 2020 from February to September. The structural and valid gathering tool including 3 sections: baseline data, radiation protection awareness and dose assessment knowledge questionnaire were used.
Results: Approximately 82 % of students chose a dose of lumbar X-ray exams between 1 and 50 times the (potrior – anterior (PA )) chest, and only 9 % answered the question correctly. However, 27% of the staff chose the correct answer. Students on the average dose of mammography had  more choice (1-10 times) of a PA chest test, while staff preferred 100-500. The crew performed better on the dose resulting from a PET-CT test as well as the dose estimate from a nuclear medicine heart scan, and selected 36% correct response (more than 500 times the PA chest), while students had a lower rating (1-10 times) than others. Overall, 45% of students and staff had any training or retraining after completing their training at the university. 
Conclusions: In self-reporting, most students and staff believed that they had a suitable or sufficient level of awareness of ionizing radiation. Radiology students had a better level of knowledge about radiation protection than radiology staffs, while radiology staffs had a better estimate in discussing dose assessment.

Keywords

Main Subjects


  1. Shiralkar S, Rennie A, Snow M, Galland R, Lewis M, Gower-Thomas K. Doctors’ knowledge of radiation exposure: questionnaire study. Bmj. 2003; 327(7411):371- 2.
  2. Mettler Jr FA, Bhargavan M, Faulkner K, Gilley DB, Gray JE, Ibbott GS, et al. Radiologic and nuclear medicine studies in the United States and worldwide: frequency, radiation dose, and comparison with other radiation sources—1950–2007. Radiology. 2009; 253(2):520-31.
  3. Günalp M, Gülünay B, Polat O, Demirkan A, Gürler S, Akkaş M, et al. Ionising radiation awareness among resident doctors, interns, and radiographers in a university hospital emergency department. La radiologia medica. 2014; 119(6):440-7.
  4. Chodick G, Bekiroglu N, Hauptmann M, Alexander BH, Freedman DM, Doody MM, et al. Risk of cataract after exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation: a 20- year prospective cohort study among US radiologic technologists. American journal of epidemiology. 2008; 168(6):620-31.
  5. Boxall AB, Hardy A, Beulke S, Boucard T, Burgin L, Falloon PD, et al. Impacts of climate change on indirect human exposure to pathogens and chemicals from agriculture. Environmental health perspectives. 2008; 117(4):508-14.
  6. Nolan CM, Blumberg HM, and Taylor Z, Bernardo J. American thoracic society/centers for disease control and prevention /infectious diseases society of America: controlling tuberculosis in the United States. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 2005; 172(9):1169.
  7. Bushong SC. Radiologic science for technologists-E-book: physics, biology, and protection: Elsevier Health Sciences; 2013.
  8. Lee CI, Haims AH, Monico EP, Brink JA, Forman HP. Diagnostic CT scans: assessment of patient, physician, and radiologist awareness of radiation dose and possible risks. Radiology. 2004; 231(2):393-8.
  9. 9. Ramanathan S, Ryan J. Radiation awareness among radiology residents, technologists, fellows and staff: where do we stand? Insights into imaging. 2015; 6(1):133-9.
  10. Senemtaşi Ünal E, Geliş K, Baykan P. Investigation of awareness levels about the radiation safety of personnel working in the imaging units of the hospitals in Agri, Turkey. Journal of radiation research and applied sciences. 2018; 11(2):111-5.
  11. Yurt A, Çavuşoğlu B, Günay T. Evaluation of awareness on radiation protection and knowledge about radiological examinations in healthcare professionals who use ionized radiation at work. Molecular imaging and radionuclide therapy. 2014; 23(2):48.
  12. Rasuli B, Mahmoud‐Pashazadeh A, Ghorbani M, Juybari RT, Naserpour M. Patient dose measurement in common medical X‐ray examinations in Iran. Journal of applied clinical medical physics. 2016; 17(1):374-86.
  13. Ria F, Bergantin A, Vai A, Bonfanti P, Martinotti A, Redaelli I, et al. Awareness of medical radiation exposure among patients: a patient survey as a first step for effective communication of ionizing radiation risks. Physica Medica. 2017; 43:57-62.
  14. Borgen L, Stranden E. Radiation knowledge and perception of referral practice among radiologists and radiographers compared with referring clinicians. Insights into imaging. 2014; 5(5):635-40.
  15. AS Alahmari M, Sun Z. A systematic review of the efficiency of radiation protection training in raising awareness of medical staff working in catheterisation laboratory. Current Medical Imaging Reviews. 2015; 11(3):200-6.
  16. Awosan K, Ibrahim M, Saidu S, Ma’aji S, Danfulani M, Yunusa E, et al. Knowledge of radiation hazards, radiation protection practices and clinical profile of health workers in a teaching hospital in Northern Nigeria. Journal of clinical and diagnostic research: JCDR. 2016; 10(8):LC07.
  17. Briggs-Kamara MA, Okoye PC, Omubo-Pepple VB. Radiation safety awareness among patients and radiographers in three hospitals in Port Harcourt. Am J Sci Ind Res. 2013; 4(1):83-8.
  18. Furmaniak KZ, Kołodziejska MA, Szopiński KT. Radiation awareness among dentists, radiographers and students. Dentomaxillofacial Radiology. 2016; 45(8):20160097.
  19. Kiguli-Malwadde E, Matovu PD, Kawooya M, Byanyima R. Radiation safety awareness among radiation workers and clientele at Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. East and Central African Journal of Surgery. 2006; 11(1):49-51.
  20. Kim C, Vasaiwala S, Haque F, Pratap K, Vidovich MI. Radiation safety among cardiology fellows. The American journal of cardiology. 2010; 106(1):125-8.
  21. Lim HCS, Ng KS, Tan HH, Leong KWG. Hospital preparedness for radiation emergencies and medical management of multiple combined radiation injury victims. Proceedings of Singapore Healthcare. 2011; 20(3):197-207.
  22. Soye J, Paterson A. A survey of awareness of radiation dose among health professionals in Northern Ireland. The British journal of radiology. 2008; 81(969):725-9.
  23. Masoumi H, Hasanzadeh H, Jadidi M, Mirmohammadkhani M, Bitarafan-Rajabi A, Abedelahi A, et al. A survey on the radiation protection status among radiology staff. Iranian Journal of Medical Physics. 2018; 15(3):176-82.
  24. Rostami A, Cheshmyazdan MR, Payande Vafa M, Kia L, Ghoreishi FS. Physicians’ Knowledge about Different Radiobiology Aspect and Radiation Dose, Received by Patients in Diagnostic Radiology in 2013. Journal of Payavard Salamat. 2016; 10(1):69-81.
  25. Rostamzadeh A, Farzizadeh M, Fatehi D. Evaluation of the level of protection in Radiology Departments of Kermanshah, Iran. Iranian Journal of Medical Physics. 2015;12(3):200-8.
  26. Dehghani A, Ranjbarian M, Mohammadi A, Soleiman[1]Zade M, Dadashpour-Ahangar A. Radiation safety awareness amongst staff and patients in the hospitals. International journal of occupational hygiene. 2014; 6(3):114-9.
  27. Eksioglu AS, Üner Ç. Pediatricians’ awareness of diagnostic medical radiation effects and doses: are the latest efforts paying off? Diagnostic and interventional radiology. 2012; 18(1):78.
  28. Iortile J, Archibong B, Chelen J. Assessment of the levels of radiation absorbed by radiology personnel in some hospitals in Makurdi metropolis. Hospital management. 2013; 13:32.5.
  29. Lee W, Woo S, Seol S, Kim D, Wee J, Choi S, et al. Physician and nurse knowledge about patient radiation exposure in the emergency department. Nigerian journal of clinical practice. 2016; 19(4):502-7.
  30. Sheyn DD, Racadio JM, Ying J, Patel MN, Racadio JM, Johnson ND. Efficacy of a radiation safety education initiative in reducing radiation exposure in the pediatric IR suite. Pediatric radiology. 2008; 38(6):669-74.
  31. Huang B, Law MW-M, Khong P-L. Whole-body PET/ CT scanning: estimation of radiation dose and cancer risk. Radiology. 2009; 251(1):166-74.
  32. Zhou G, Wong D, Nguyen L, Mendelson R. Student and intern awareness of ionising radiation exposure from common diagnostic imaging procedures. Journal of medical imaging and radiation oncology. 2010; 54(1):17- 23.
  33. Szarmach A, Piskunowicz M, Świętoń D, Muc A, Mockałło G, Dzierżanowski J, et al. Radiation safety awareness among medical staff. Polish journal of radiology. 2015; 80:57.
  34. Siavashpour Z, Mehdizadeh S, Farshadi A, Baradaran[1]Ghahfarokhi M. Radiation protection principles observance in mammography divisions in Shiraz. Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal. 2012; 14(12):840.
  35. F. Paolicchi, F. Miniati, L. Bastiani, L. Faggioni, A. Ciaramella, I. Creonti, C. Sottocornola, C. Dionisi, D. Caramella. Assessment of radiation protection awareness and knowledge about radiological examination doses among Italian radiographers. Insights Imaging (2016) 7:233–242.
  36. Hamarsheh A, Ahmead M. Assessment of physicians’ knowledge and awareness about the hazards of radiological examinations on the health of their patients. 2012.
  37. Adejoh T, Anene CN, Akanegbu UE, Imo SA, Chiegwu HU, Onwujekwe EC. Computed tomography dose for adult head scan in Anambra State of Nigeria. Journal of the Association of Radiographers of Nigeria. 2016; 30(1).
  38. Alhasan M, Abdelrahman M, Alewaidat H, Khader Y. Radiation dose awareness of radiologic technologists in major Jordanian hospitals. International Journal of Radiation Research. 2016; 14(2):133-8.
  39. Connolly B, Racadio J, Towbin R. Practice of ALARA in the pediatric interventional suite. Pediatric radiology. 2006; 36(2):163-7.
  40. Dauda AM, Ozoh JO, Towobola OA. Medical doctors’ awareness of radiation exposure in diagnostic radiology investigations in a South African academic institution. South African Journal of Radiology. 2019; 23(1):7.
  41. Faggioni L, Paolicchi F, Bastiani L, Guido D, Caramella D. Awareness of radiation protection and dose levels of imaging procedures among medical students, radiography students, and radiology residents at an academic hospital: Results of a comprehensive survey. Eur J Radiol. 2017 Jan;86:135-142
  • Receive Date: 02 December 2021
  • Revise Date: 12 January 2022
  • Accept Date: 23 January 2022
  • First Publish Date: 23 January 2022