Ebola virus, a virus with mysterious origin: A review

Document Type : Review

Authors

1 Basic and Molecular Epidemiology of Gastrointestinal Disorders Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Arboviruses and Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran

4 Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

5 Department Bone Marrow Transplantation, specialist in Infectious Diseases , Taleghani Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Ebola virus is one of the causes of viral hemorrhagic fevers. Viral hemorrhagic fever is a severe disease that affects several organs. Ebola virus is one of the most dangerous viruses that causes severe disease in human and mammals. The transmission of this virus takes place through direct contact with the blood and body fluids of an infected person. Considering that usually, the first people who are exposed to this disease are healthcare workers, proper recognition and strict adherence to safety protocols are recommended when dealing with suspected patients. The present study is review-narrative research in which the articles indexed in the international scientific databases Science Direct, PubMed, and Google scholar, limited to English and up to 2021, were used. After studying and evaluating the abstracts of 109 articles and removing irrelevant and repetitive studies, finally, 37 articles were reviewed and used. The results of this review showed that the Ebola virus has the possibility of spreading in the world and causing widespread deaths; and requires strict control, the creation of a network for reporting suspicious cases, and more precise control of the country’s borders for travelers from West Africa, in case of an outbreak. Despite numerous studies and recent advances, unfortunately, there is still no complete treatment and reliable preventive vaccine for Ebola virus. Doctors and nurses should know the travel or contact history of patients. Since the discovery of Ebola, 13 epidemics have occurred in Africa. In December 2013, a deadly epidemic occurred in West African countries, including Sierra Leone, Nigeria, Guinea, and Liberia. Cases of Ebola have been reported in the United States, Norway, Australia, and Spain. But this disease has not been reported in Iran. This study was conducted with the aim of providing new information about the Ebola virus and more awareness of the health care staff with epidemilology, pathogenic mechanisms, symptoms, diagnosis, advances in treatment candidates, and vaccines. Ebola virus is a zoonotic disease with high mortality. Ebola is fatal among animals and humans in Africa. Due to the fact that the natural history and reservoir of the Ebola virus have not been precisely determined and early diagnosis and identification of infection in humans and animals is very important, to prevent the spread of the disease, it is necessary to isolate and quarantine patients with fever and take precautionary measures.

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Volume 1, Issue 2
October 2022
Pages 107-113
  • Receive Date: 12 December 2021
  • Revise Date: 20 August 2022
  • Accept Date: 01 September 2022
  • First Publish Date: 01 September 2022